Collaboration refers to the working together of entities (teams, tribes, organisations, databases, etc.) with the aim of cooperating on areas of common interest. A kind of large clustering whereby a collective presence is formed creating hermeneutic understanding of topics of interest. Entities that collaborate on common issues can obtain greater resources, recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources. The Global Village, enabled by technology in the form of the Internet, can be seen as form of collaboration by humans to share knowledge.
In a bee colony, the collaboration of individual bees cooperating with one another forms a bee colony which has a collective presence.
The Federated Collaborative Networks Group (FCN) for example, works on Virtual Communities and Virtual Laboratories, supporting the management of information, knowledge and services required for the creation, operation and evolution or dissolution of collaborative networked organizations that act as a virtual single organization (http://www.science.uva.nl/FCN/projects.html).