How Curiosity Empowers Toyota

From Adaptive Cycle
Jump to: navigation, search

Contributors

Boris Rottmann

How Curiosity Empowers Toyota is the name of a case study related to the Group work Curiosity in the adaptive cycle.

Introduction

How Curiosity Empowers Toyota is the title of on article published at Bloomberg BusinessWeek by Keith McFarland in 2007. The article elaborates on Toyotas success story and analyzes the relations of Toyotas success and curiosity. This case study on Toyota can be seen as an example on how curiosity can be organized within an organization. McFarland points out the following.Throughout its history, Toyota appears to have put an emphasis on an important but oft-overlooked characteristic: Curiosity.[1] McFarland is refereeing to two books in his article;

The main topic of the article How Curiosity Empowers Toyota is the review of the book How Toyota became #1 by David Magee with a specific focus on curiosity. The book describes the success story of small Japanese startup becoming the world’s greatest automaker. For more than 70 years, Toyota's curiosity has allowed it to build, brick by brick, a commercial fortress.[1] The author of the book, David Magee, interviewed current and former Toyota executives in the USA and Japan in order to understand the Toyota and its success. More information on the book can be found here:How Toyota became #1 and in the following chapters of this wiki page.

This Wiki page documents a case study named after the article How Curiosity Empowers Toyota by McFarland. The case study focuses on curiosity in practice at Toyota, how curiosity can be organized within an organization and curiosity in the adaptive cycle. The case study How Curiosity Empowers Toyota is part of the group work: Curiosity in the Adaptive Cycle with the research question: How do you organize curiosity, as a proactive method avoiding crisis? The group work is part of the lecture Information Management & organizational change in the track Business Information Systems at University of Amsterdam.

Case study - How Curiosity Empowers Toyota

The literature bases of the case study is the book How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company by David Magee. This case study focuses on curiosity in the adaptive cycle and curiosity in practice. The book How Toyota become number 1 by David Magee was read with the intention to answer the following to questions:

  1. Is it possible to identify curiosity stimulating methods in Toyotas company culture and System?
  2. Is it possible to identify examples where curiosity has been applied in practice?

In the following chapters elaborate on curiosity methods and examples of curiosity in practice at Toyota.

Selected topics and chapters - How Toyota became #1

The book How Toyota became #1 by David Magee deals with a broad range of topics around the Company Toyota. Such topics are Toyotas history, its unique company culture, its company principles, Toyotas Management, Toyota Production System (TPS), Continuous Improvement, Total Quality Management (TQM), Process Re-engineering, Lean Production and much more. The challenge of this case study was to filter this huge amount of information, to focus on curiosity and to link it to the adaptive cycle.

Toyota Production System (TPS)

One of the main topics of the book is the Toyota Production System (TPS). TPS is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer, including interaction with suppliers and customers. The system is a major precursor of the more generic "lean manufacturing." Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo and Eiji Toyoda developed the system between 1948 and 1975. TPS is not only a manufacturing system; it aims to improve production quality and profitability through creative employee contributions. [2]
This can be also found in the Principles and the Toyota Way which are:(Edited from the actual book)[3]

Continuous Improvement

  • Challenge (We form a long-term vision, meeting challenges with courage and creativity to realize our dreams.)
  • Kaizen (We improve our business operations continuously, always driving for innovation and evolution.)
  • Genchi Genbutsu (Go to the source to find the facts to make correct decisions.)

Respect for People

  • Respect (We respect others, make every effort to understand each other, take responsibility and do our best to build mutual trust.)
  • Teamwork (We stimulate personal and professional growth, share the opportunities of development and maximize individual and team performance.)

Long-term philosophy

  • Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals.

The right process will produce the right results

  • Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface.
  • Use the "pull" system to avoid overproduction.
  • Level out the workload (heijunka). (Work like the tortoise, not the hare.)
  • Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right from the first.
  • Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment.
  • Use visual control so no problems are hidden.
  • Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes

Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners

  • Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others.
  • Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy.
  • Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve

Continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning

  • Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu)
  • Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options (Nemawashi); implement decisions rapidly;
  • Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (Hansei) and continuous improvement (Kaizen).

Toyotas principles and the relation to curiosity

To structure the research on curiosity at Toyota the case study uses the characteristics impacting managerial curiosity. The following principles are categorized and linked to the following characteristics.

Characteristics of the organization and environment

Be willing to improve – Continues improvement (Kaizen)

Being innovative, willing to improve and thinking different has tradition at Toyota. Toyota spends more on research and development than its competitors, industry observers say, Toyota is laying out more than 20$ million a day for the future.[4] This case study contains two examples which explain the relation between continues improvement, the will to think different and curiosity in practice: Toyota - Entering the US manufacturing market and Toyota - Against the trend with Hybrids.

Rewarding Curiosity

Toyota has created a system to advance and stimulate the curiosity at their employees. Employees are rewarded for ideas that improve business or manufacturing processes. This System is successful; in 2005 Toyotas employees had around 600.000 suggestions for improvement, with an acceptation rate of 99%. This means there are 11 suggestions for each employee per year. Employees are usually rewarded by bonus payments.[5] This System stimulates the curiosity and the motivation for improvement of employees.

Break the resistance

When an employee is good in his tasks it can be difficult to convince this employee of new approaches and changes. For this reason Toyota created a workshops and education System which is part of TPS. Toyota use of multimedia and social media, to improve it employee’s ability to adapt to change. For this Toyota has not been shy to using videotape evidence.[6] In workshops employees are confronted with their behavior and suggestion to improve. This is a way of supporting and educating employees to adapt in a constantly changing environment. It allows the empyloee to improve and be curious about changes.

Characteristics of the managers

The power of humility

The book of David Magee shows that top down management is not a sustainable model for growth or leadership. In the chapter “The power of humility” the author creates a short image of the vice president Gary Convis at Toyota, who, according to the book, lives Toyotas philosophy. He is described with the following attributes[7].

  • Frequently flies coach, handling his own bags
  • Eschews personal use of company jet
  • Reads and manages his own e-mail
  • Parks in the main plant employees lot, first come first served
  • Walks manufacturing facility floor daily
  • Remains accessible to team members

This image presents Toyotas philosophy of humility. Don’t give other employees reason to doubt the principles of the company. The book continues its observation of the image of Gary Convis by comparing it with managers at General Motors (GM) who can be described with total opposite attributes/behavior, separated from its employees with a “rational management” top down approach. The book outlines further that on average GM leading managers earned about 2$mio/year in 2006 while Toyotas leading mangers earned 500.000$/year on average in 2006.[8] This shows how Toyota life’s its philosophy. The impact on the employees is that they believe in the company and life the philosophy as well.

Characteristics of the assignment

Going to the source of the Problem (Genchi Genbutsu )

Solving problems has tradition at Toyota. For solving problem Toyota employees follow the Genchi Genbutsu principle. This is about finding the root of the problem. This principle can be found in Toyotas steps to quality[9] (copied from the book):

  • Speak up immediately when problems are recognized, no matter what
  • Ask why (at least 5 times), to each the root cause
  • Go to the source of the problem and see for yourself.

The search for the root of the problem can be a curiosity stimulating method. This case study contains two examples which explain the relation between “Going to the source of the problem” and curiosity in practice: Totota - Entering the luxury market and Toyota - Entering the youth market.

The 5 Why process of find the root of a problem

The auther David Magee developed the following example: The 5 Whys[10] (copied from the book)

  1. Why did that machine suddenly stop? Because it blew a fuse
  2. Why did the fuse blow? Because the fuse wasn’t the right size
  3. Why was the wrong size in the fuse box? Because one of the engineers put it there
  4. Why did the engineer do that? Because somebody in the supply room issued the wrong fuse
  5. Why? Because the stock bin for fuses was mislabeled

Pulling the cord

The author David Magee writes in his book the essential demand of Toyotas employees are:[11]

  1. Come to work every day
  2. Pull the cord when there is a problem

Employees at the assembly line are asked to pull the cord if they identify a problem (quality and safety). When a team member pulls the cord, he is activating a lights, the entire line is stopped and the problem can be addressed At the Georgetown, Kentucky Toyota plant, cords are pulled about 5000 time a day.[12] Pulling the cord is a huge expensive procedure but on the long term it is cheaper than calling products back. Toyota gives its employees a huge responsibility. Pulling the cord is also a method which improves and simulates curiosity.

Elimination of Waste

Toyota tries to constantly improve. One of the biggest issues TPS deals with is the limitation of waste. The following points show seven types of waste identified in TPS by Taiichi Ohno, and the remedies for their elimination.[13] Every employee is asked to follow and support the elimination of waste:

  1. Overproduction: Slow production of parts to only what is necessary or required by customers
  2. Waiting: Eliminate any idle time that can be used more productively
  3. Excess conveyance: Stop unnecessary transportation of parts and materials from one place to the next
  4. Over processing: Cease all actions that do not benefit the customer in any way.
  5. Excess inventory: Maintain a “buy one, sell one” philosophy; keep one hand no more than is demanded by customers
  6. Unnecessary motion: Reduce movement by people and equipment that does not add value to the company or the customer.
  7. Defects and corrections: Stop defects at the source, before going on to another step.

This approach of waste elimination allows every employee to contribute his ideas for waste elimination.

Curiosity in practice and the Adaptive Cycle

This part of the case study focuses on four examples of curiosity in practices. Each example consists of a description, information about the situation and a link to the adaptive cycle.

Toyota - Entering the US manufacturing market

Joint venture of Toyota and GM in California - New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI)

Until the early 1980th Toyota was importing cars from Japan to the USA and because of rising demand Toyota was facing import restrictions by the U.S. Congress. In the 1980th Toyota began to plan its own production plants in the United States. Toyota was aware of the culture difference of Japanese and American worker and Toyota executives were unsure whether they could introduce the Toyota Production System (TPS) in the USA. For this purpose Toyota decided to not build a production plant on its own but to build a production plant with an established car builder in the USA. In 1986 Toyota and General Motors (GM) came together in a joint venture in California with New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI).[14]

The joint venture was supposed to bring benefits to both partners. GM wanted to build high-quality and profitable small cars and Toyota needed access to the US production and manufacturing market. The joint venture was about sharing costs and experience. Toyota was also able to test its Production System TPS in America as GM was also interested to learn about TPS [15]. Toyota was adapting its Production System to the American culture with great success. [16]

Steve Bera one of the original NUMMI mangers described how the Japanese executives were willing to learn and adapted not only to American business but also to American culture. Steva Bera described how he and his wife hosted there first official dinner with Japanese Executives and there wife’s. It is Japanese custom that men and women sit on difference tables during dinner. Steva Bera and his wife ask them to sit at the same table. They were not offended but somewhat caught off guard. Soon, the Toyota employees began to socialize more according to American customs, adapting to differences. This is part of Toyotas Guiding principles(edited from the book)[17]

  1. Honor the language and sprit of the law of every nation and undertake open fair corporate activities to be a good corporate citizen of the world.
  2. Respect the culture and customer of every nation and contribute to economic and social development through corporate activities in the communities
  3. ...

The process of a joint venture and the interaction and communication between Toyota and General Motors can be seen as organized curiosity. Beside the business component, there is a human and culture component. David Magee describes that Toyota was taking the joint venture much more serious than. David Magee points that out as followed; Toyota was sending their highest executives to NUMMI to learn about TPS in the USA and the American manufacturing way, GM on the other hand was send lower ranged executives.[18]
Toyota is adapting to the culture of the host county as in their principles penned. When Toyota does business in America they become American, when they do business in Europe they become European. Toyota is investing much in the communities around their production facilities. Beside investments in infrastructure Toyota invests in local communities and the society e.g. funding education and social projects. This approach and its innovative products made Toyota ranked among the top ten of Fortune magazine’s America’s Most Admired Companies[19]
.

NUMMI and the Adaptive Cycle

This chapter summarizes the above described situation shortly and links the events to the phases in the adaptive cycle. In 1980 Toyota was facing a crisis; there imports were limited by the US government and Toyota needed to start its own production in USA (Red). To enter the US market it needs time and market research. To minimize the risk of failing Toyota launched a joint venture with GM (Blue). In 1986 the new manufacturing plant NUMMI was opened (Green). Toyota began with the mass production on American ground learning and continuously improving (orange).

AdaptiveCycle: Toyota entering the US manufacturing market

This can be described as the entrepreneurial phase. Since then Toyota has adapted to American culture, invested much in American communities to become one of the most admired American companies ranked in the Fortune magazine 2006 (Yellow). This can be described as equilibrium.

Totota - Entering the luxury market

With Toyotas success and growth in the 1980th Toyotas became tired of the typecast as manufacturer for small, affordable vehicles. The market for luxury cars is profitable and also a prestige symbol. In the 1983 Toyota began with plans for entering the luxury marked. [20] Toyota’s engineers and designers in Japan were working on a project called F1. The project had a clear objective: Build the best luxury vehicle in the world. The projected was led by Eiji Toyota and chief engineer Ichiro Suzuki. The team began to study the competitors in the luxury class: Mercedes 190E, BMW 528e, and the Audi 5000. Toyota planned to develop its own luxury brand unlike the competitor e.g. Ford who bought Volvo and Jaguar at that time to enter the luxury market. Toyota sought to create a signature product lineup organically, from within. This approach would give Toyota complete ownership while allowing it to set standards high that consumers would have no choice to choice Toyota [21].

Toyotas research team visited the USA in the spring of 1985 to live a life of luxury and learn the tastes and preference of American luxury-car buyers. This activity can be linked to Toyota philosophy “genchi genbutsu” (going to the source and see firsthand). After living in a rented home in Laguna Beach, California, for several months, the team reached many conclusions, unanimously deciding that luxury market vehicles had many weaknesses. A Mercedes-Benz, for instance, had a cramped interior and conservative styling. The Audi had a poor reputation for quality, and the BMW, while stylish and sporty, sold so many cars that their product became more common than elite.[22].

This process of going to the source of the problem and seeing first hand can be seen as organized curiosity. Toyota sent its designer and engineers to the potential customers to see firsthand what they demand.

By bringing together the best ever in quality, styling, and service Toyota planned to develop its first luxury car. Little, if any expense was spared. Over the course of five years, Toyota invested $1 billion and employed some 60 designers, 24 engineering teams, 1,400 engineers, 2,300 technicians, and 220 support workers to develop over 450 prototypes. Out of this a product model of the LS400 emerged in 1989.

A vehicle with an identity of all its own, the LS400 shared no noticeable characteristics with other Toyota products. Its roomy interior, sleek panel, powerful V* engine, and all-wheel driven left all luxury competitors in the dust. The car was first shown in the North American International Auto Show in Detroit 1989. Robert B. McCurry was one of the first American employees of Toyota; he was managing North American Sales. In his opinion Toyotas plan to simply add theLS400 to its existing vehicle lineup would confuse buyers minimize the companies opportunity, and shortchange the phenomenal vehicles potential. He suggested that the car needed its own luxury brand with an own seller network. The suggestion was approved in the same year with the brand Lexus. The brand launch was and is a huge success. 2007 Lexus was named to Business Week top ten “list of customer service elite brands”. In 2007 Lexus sold more than 300.000 vehicles only in the US. [23].

The competitor Ford mentioned at the beginning which purchased the luxury brand Jaguar instead of developing its own luxury brand performed bad. Ford did not manage to integrate the brand in to the Ford product line. How Lexus beat better established competitors like BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Jaguar. [24].

  • Unprecedented quite ride while maintaining stability and control
  • Elegant interior and exterior styling with highly functional controls
  • Powerful, smooth-running engine yielding better gas mileage

Project F1 and the Adaptive Cycle

This chapter summarizes the above described situation shortly and links the events to the phases in the adaptive cycle. In the 1980 Toyota was facing a crisis in terms of having no access to the profitable luxury market (RED). Toyota solved this problem by doing research in this area 1983-1985(blue). Toyota sent a research time to the USA to life with the customers who supposed to buy the product later. This is organized curiosity in practice. After they found the information they need they begin the research and the production resulting in the release of LS400 in 1989 (Green).

AdaptiveCycle: Toyota - Entering the luxury market

Toyota began with mass production and continuous improvement which can be described as entrepreneurial phase (Orange). In the following years the product is on the market, sales being to stabilize and to grow (Yellow). The cycle has reached the equilibrium.

Toyota - Entering the youth market

In the End of the 1990th Toyota and other automaker were facing a trend change at the auto market. Cars became more affordable also for younger generations, the so called generation Y. This segment fell outside of Toyotas core market. The Toyota Corolla, for example, was massively popular for years running, but its mainstream styling did not always suite young buyers looking for more edgy niche products. In 1999 Toyota started the project Genesis under the direction of Yoshimi Inaba president of Toyota Motors USA at that time.[25] The project formed a study group to do marked research, but the research period was very short. The Genesis project is today known as an example of a departure from the Toyota way, because the lineup of cars created were more based on internal beliefs than marketplace research. The initiative was driven from the top rather than the customer level.


All 3 cars were a flop for Toyota. The MR2 was an underpowered two-seater with no storage room, and the Echo and Celica did not connect with young buyers emotionally. All three products were canceled within five years. The lesson to Toyota was clear: Making new products without adequate customer input is a recipe for failure.[26] Project Genesis was launched in 2003 because the marked for younger generations was growing. This time relying on the Toyota philosophy “genchi genbutsu”(going to the source and see firsthand). To serve the customer you have to know the customer.[27] Toyota founded a sub brand called Scion, a brand for younger generations. Just as Toyota had send the Lexus designers to live and learn the hyper luxurious life, the company employed a grassroots fact-finding mission to find out what young buyers would want to drive. Instead of simply building vehicles executives and designers guessing what young buyers would want. Scion team members went to parks and neighborhoods in Southern California to observe, hang out and life with young skateboarders and other edgier denizens. They learned that their intended audience didn’t want anything that would be seen as mainstream, commercial or something older generations would drive[28]. The new cars looked like that:

Project Genesis and the Adaptive Cycle

This chapter summarizes the above described situation shortly and links the events to the phases in the adaptive cycle. This chapter summarizes the above described situation shortly and links the events to the phases in the adaptive cycle. In 1995 Toyota was facing a crisis in terms of having no access to the growing market of young people and owning a car.(RED) Toyota launched the project Genesis which was favoring internal beliefs more over market research and the needs of young customers. Project Genesis is known for as a departure of the Toyota way and failing (Blue). The 3 developed cars were not accepted by the market (Red).

AdaptiveCycle: Toyota - Entering the youth market

The project Genesis was re launched this time with a more customer oriented research. Research teams were sent to California to life and figure out what young customers want. The result was a new brand with new cars (Green). In 2003 Toyota began with the mass production and continuous improvement (orange). In 2006 the selling numbers started to stabilize (Yellow).

AdaptiveCycle: Toyota - Entering the youth market round 2

Toyota - Against the trend with Hybrids

In the mind-1990s Toyotas biggest competitors Ford, GE and Chrysler were making great profits with so called SUVs, big cars with strong engines.[29]
The trend of big cars with powerful engines seem to continue, that’s why GE even expended and bought the brand Hummer to provide the customer with even bigger cars. Toyota was facing a crisis in terms of not being part of the SUV boom. Toyota could have tried to join this SUV boom but Toyotas long term strategy had other objectives. Toyota was working on a project called Global21. Some of the Global 21 project objectives:[30]

  • Develop a small sedan with unprecedented fuel efficiency for a mainstream consumer vehicle.
  • Make the car environmentally friendly
  • Create more interior space than previously offered in compact cars.
  • Maintain consumer affordability so the vehicle is not merely a corporate talking point

All its competitors were making huge profits with big cars and heavy SUV’s while Toyota was spending 1$ billion on the development and research of the hybrid technology. Toyota believes that on the long term fuel efficiency and environmentally friendly cars are the future.

The process of having a future vision and thinking different can be described as organized curiosity. Thinking different than the mainstream.

The first hybrid car, the Prius, was launched in Japan 1997 and in the USA 1999. The long term strategy was a success, in 2007 Toyota sold about 430.000 of the Prius[31]

Global21 and the Adaptive Cycle

This chapter summarizes the above described situation shortly and links the events to the phases in the adaptive cycle. In 1990 (Red) Toyota was facing a crisis in terms of not being part of the SUV boom. Toyota was following its long Term Strategy Global21 (Blue) with the development of the hybrid technology. In 1997 the first Hybrid car was released. In 1997 Toyota began with mass production and continuous improvement (Orange).

AdaptiveCycle - Toyota - Against the trend with Hybrids

With customers becoming more environment conscious and with rising fuel prices, the new hybrid cars became successful and sales begin to stabilize (Yellow).

Conclusions on How Curiosity Empowers Toyota

The case study has presented some of Toyotas systems and main principles. TPS is an integrated socio-technical system that comprises Toyotas management philosophy and practices. The case study has shown how Toyotas principles stimulate curiosity e.g. be willing to improve and Going to the source of the problem.

Finalmessage Adaptive Cycle: Toyotacase study

The four examples presented in this case study have one thing in common; Crisis leads to new innovations and is responsible for projects which lead to a certain curiosity of involved employees. The examples also show that curiosity in practice is applied in the main development from Equilibrium, Crisis, new combinations.

The case study is strongly focusing on the topic crisis. For future investigation it could be interesting to observe Toyotas story with the focus on other phases of the Adaptive Cycle. In short; is it possible to identify curiosity in other phases of the Adaptive Cycle?

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 McFarland, Keith. (October 19, 2007). How Curiosity Empowers Toyota
  2. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.21
  3. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.211-213
  4. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.56
  5. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.34
  6. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.65
  7. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.65
  8. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.53
  9. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.75
  10. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.81
  11. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.76
  12. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.76
  13. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.67
  14. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.155
  15. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.156
  16. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.157
  17. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.211
  18. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.155
  19. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.160
  20. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.86
  21. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.87
  22. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.87
  23. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.89
  24. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.90
  25. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.120
  26. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.120
  27. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.122
  28. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company.p.122
  29. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.106
  30. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.108
  31. Magee, David. (2007). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons from the World's Greatest Car Company,p.110

Contributors

Boris Rottmann